By Pratima Bajpai (auth.)
The e-book presents an up to date and particular assessment on advances in bioethanol. It appears on the ancient views, chemistry, assets and construction of ethanol and discusses biotechnology breakthroughs and promising advancements. The publication additionally presents the main points in regards to the makes use of, benefits, difficulties, environmental results and features of bioethanol as a gasoline. moreover, it provides information regarding ethanol in several components of the area and in addition highlights the demanding situations and way forward for ethanol.
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Extra resources for Advances in Bioethanol
Lignin can replace phenol in the widely used phenol formaldehyde resins. Both production costs and market value of these products are complex. In corn-based ethanol plants, the stillage (20 % protein) is very valuable as animal feed. 5 Recirculation of Process Stream The water consumption is reduced by recirculating process streams for use in the washing and hydrolysis steps (Palmqvist and Hahn-Hagerdal 2000). Recirculating part of the dilute ethanol stream from the fermenter can increase the ethanol concentration in the feed to the distillation stage.
Pretreatment is required to alter the biomass macroscopic and microscopic size and structure as well as its submicroscopic chemical composition and structure so that hydrolysis of carbohydrate fraction to monomeric sugars can be achieved more rapidly and with greater yields (Sun and Cheng 2002; Mosier et al. 2005; Tucker et al. 2003). Pretreatment affects the structure of biomass by solubilizing hemicellulose, reducing crystallinity and increase the available surface area and pore volume of the substrate.
The grants are designed 46 3 Production of Bioethanol to help ethanol producers with the upfront capital costs associated with construction of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries. The stated DOE goal is to prove the feasibility of cellulosic ethanol technology. Recipients are eligible for up to $100 million and must show a 60 % industry/40 % government cost share. In addition, DOE is working on a loan guarantee program for cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as authorized in the 2005 energy bill. This program has seen significantly slower progress but is equally as important to helping companies construct cellulosic ethanol facilities often costing 4–5 times that of a traditional corn ethanol biorefinery.