By Jeremy Bentham
Based at the assumption that folks search excitement and steer clear of soreness, Bentham's utilitarian viewpoint varieties a advisor to ethical decision-making. With the "greatest happiness of the best quantity" as his aim, the writer makes an attempt to spot the assets and forms of excitement and discomfort in addition to the ways that they are often measured in assessing ethical thoughts. issues of intentionality, attention, factors, and inclinations aid Bentham's arguments. The textual content concludes along with his survey of objective and the position of legislation and jurisprudence, a desirable workout within the concept of social reform that explores conflicts among the pursuits of the bulk and person freedom.
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Additional info for An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
12. What has been said with regard to moral sensibility, may be applied, mutatis mutandis, to religious. XIX. 13. What has been said with regard to moral biases, may also be applied, mutatis mutandis, to religious biases. XX. 14. By sympathetic sensibility is to be understood the propensity that a man has to derive pleasure from the happiness, and pain from the unhappiness, of other sensitive beings. It is the stronger, the greater the ratio of the pleasure or pain he feels on their account is to that of the pleasure or pain which (according to what appears to him) they feel for themselves.
A man’s inclinations may be said to have such or such 46/Jeremy Bentham a bent, when, amongst the several sorts of objects which afford pleasure in some degree to all men, he is apt to expect more pleasure from one particular sort, than from another particular sort, or more from any given particular sort, than another man would expect from that sort; or when, amongst the several sorts of objects, which to one man afford pleasure, whilst to another they afford none, he is apt to expect, or not to expect, pleasure from an object of such or such a sort: so also with regard to pains.
Antipathetic biases 18. Insanity. 19. Habitual occupations. 20. Pecuniary circumstances. 21. Connexions in the way of sympathy. 22. Connexions in the way of antipathy. 23. Radical frame of body. 24. Radical frame of mind. 25. Sex. 26. Age. 27. Rank. 28. Education. 29. Climate. 30. Lineage. 31. Government. 32. Religious profession. VII. 1. Health is the absence of disease, and consequently of all those kinds of pain which are among the symptoms of disease. A man may be said to be in a state of health when he is not conscious of any uneasy sensations, the primary seat of which can be perceived to be anywhere in his body.