By Bezemer J.L.
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Extra resources for And so Forth
When ’EXIT’ is encountered, the address on top of the Return Stack is popped. Execution then continues at that address, which in fact is the place where we came from. If we would store that address on the Data Stack, things would go wrong, because we can never be sure how many values were on that stack when we called the colon-definition, nor would be know how many there are on that stack when we encounter ’EXIT’. A separate stack takes care of that. Try and figure out how this algorithm works when we call a colon-definition from a colon-definition and you will see that it works (Forth is proof of that).
If you try a negative number, you will find it prints garbage. This behavior can be fixed with the word ’SIGN’. ’SIGN’ simply takes the number from the stack and prints a "-" when it is negative. The problem is that all other formatting words can only handle positive numbers. So we need the same number twice. One with the sign and one without. A typical signed number formatting word looks like: : signed# dup >r abs s>d <# #s r> sign #> type ; Note the ’DUP ABS’ sequence. First the number is duplicated (for ’SIGN’) and then the absolute value is taken (for the other formatting words).
0<>’ takes the top of the stack and leaves a true-flag if it is non-zero. Otherwise it will leave a false- flag. The funny thing is ’AND’ and ’OR’ work perfectly with flags and behave as expected. ’0<>’ will convert a value to a flag for you. " I’m here" cr then ; test Of course, you don’t have to use ’0<>’ when a word returns a flag. You should check the standard for details on that. 2 Including your own definitions At a certain point you may have written a lot of definitions you’re very fond of.