By Daniel H. Shain
Annelids provide a variety of experimentally available gains making them a rich experimental subject across the organic sciences, including evolutionary improvement, neurosciences and stem mobilephone research.
This quantity introduces the Annelids and their software in evolutionary developmental biology, neurobiology, and environmental/ecological stories, together with severe environments. The e-book demonstrates the range of fields during which Annelids are already proving to be an invaluable experimental system. Describing the application of Annelids as a learn version, this book is a useful source for all researchers within the field.Content:
Chapter 1 constructing types for Lophotrochozoan and Annelid Biology (pages 1–12): Kenneth M. Halanych and Elizabeth Borda
Chapter 2 Annelid Phylogeny—Molecular research with an Emphasis on version Annelids (pages 13–30): Christoph Bleidorn
Chapter three Cryptic Speciation in Clitellate version Organisms (pages 31–46): Christer Erseus and Daniel Gustafsson
Chapter four Annelid existence Cycle Cultures (pages 47–62): Donald J. Reish and Bruno Pernet
Chapter five Annelids in Evolutionary Developmental Biology (pages 63–87): Dian?Han Kuo
Chapter 6 Evolution, improvement and Ecology of Capitella sp. I: A Waxing version for Polychaete experiences (pages 88–115): Susan D. Hill and Robert M. Savage
Chapter 7 Stem phone Genesis and Differentiation in Leech (pages 116–132): Shirley A. Lang and Daniel H. Shain
Chapter eight mobile and Behavioral houses of studying in Leech and different Annelids (pages 133–155): Kevin M. Crisp and Brian D. Burrell
Chapter nine improvement, Regeneration and Immune Responses of the Leech frightened procedure (pages 156–184): Michel Salzet and Eduardo Macagno
Chapter 10 Lumbriculus variegatus and the necessity for pace: A version method for quick break out, Regeneration and Asexual replica (pages 185–202): Mark J. Zoran and Veronica G. Martinez
Chapter eleven Polychaetes in Environmental stories (pages 203–227): Victoria Diaz?Castaneda and Donald J. Reish
Chapter 12 Oligochaete Worms for Ecotoxicological overview of Soils and Sediments (pages 228–241): Jorg Rombke and Philipp Egeler
Chapter thirteen Evolution and Ecology of Ophryotrocha (Dorvilleidae, Eunicida) (pages 242–256): Daniel J. Thornhill, Thomas G. Dahlgren and Kenneth M. Halanych
Chapter 14 Cosmopolitan Earthworms—A international and historic viewpoint (pages 257–283): Robert J. Blakemore
Chapter 15 Hydrothermal Vent Annelids (pages 285–300): Florence Pradillon and Francoise Gaill
Chapter sixteen Glacier Ice Worms (pages 301–313): Paula L. Hartzell and Daniel H. Shain
Chapter 17 Sperm Ultrastructure in Assessing Phylogenetic Relationships between Clitellate Annelids (pages 314–327): Roberto Marotta and Marco Ferraguti
Chapter 18 Clitellate Cocoons and their Secretion (pages 328–346): Jon'elle Coleman and Daniel H. Shain
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In this chapter, I will present an overview of these new insights into annelid phylogeny as derived from molecular data, and summarize which genes and subtaxa have been analyzed, placing an emphasis on model annelid species. 1 Nuclear Genes The gene for which the most comprehensive taxon sampling is available is nuclear ribosomal 18S rRNA (18S). This gene has been sequenced in representatives of nearly all polychaete and clitellate families, and several annelid phylogenies based on 18S rRNA have been published (Apakupakul et al.
2008) and will certainly expedite this process. With respect to the second argument, the time frame of annelid radiation is of special interest. The oldest unequivocal annelid fossils stem from the Cambrian and are ∼530 million years old (Conway Morris and Peel 2008). This corresponds with the earliest records of sipunculid fossils (Huang et al. 2004), which are morphologically very similar to modern sipunculids. Given that sipunculids are included in the annelid radiation, one can conclude that a radiation of at least 530 million years must be reconstructed.
M. 2005. Holopelagic Poeobius meseres (“Poeobiidae”, Annelida) is derived from benthic flabelliegerid worms. Biol. Bull. 208, 213–220. , Braune, M. 2006. A multigene framework for polychaete phylogenetic studies. Org. Div. Evol. 6, 220–235. S. 2008. The earliest annelids: Lower Cambrian polychaetes from the Sirius passet lagerstätte, Peary Land, North Greenland. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 53, 137–148. , Sundberg, P. 2000. Morphological and molecular evidence of the phylogeny of nereidiform polychaetes (Annelida).