By Janos Harmatta, B. N. Puri, G. F. Etemadi
Read or Download History of Civilizations of Central Asia - Vol. 2: The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations : 700 B.C. to A.D. 250 PDF
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Extra info for History of Civilizations of Central Asia - Vol. 2: The Development of Sedentary and Nomadic Civilizations : 700 B.C. to A.D. 250
Cyaxares, called the 'founder of dominion over Asia' by the Greek trage¬ dian Aeschylus, set about expanding the frontiers of his state at the expense of his southern and eastern neighbours. c. Judging by later indirect evidence, Cyaxares also succeeded in taking Parthia, Hyrcania to the east of the Caspian Sea, and Armenia. c. he annexed Mannai, a major state to the west of Media. At the same time the Medes subjugated Urartu. c. the Median army reached the River Halys, Alyattes, ruler of the flourishing state of Lydia in Asia Minor, was alarmed by Cyaxares' conquests and opposed him.
But together with these economically advanced countries, the Persians had subdued the Massagetae and other tribal peoples. c. He created a stable system of state government for the conquered countries and systematized tax collection. This led, inter alia, to the establishment of a new administrative system that underwent little change until the end of the empire. But even after 46 Media and Achaemenid Iran Darius' reforms, each satrapy remained essentially autonomous in social and economic matters, endowed with its own social institutions and internal struc¬ ture, and preserving its old local laws and traditions.
It may thus be assumed that he won his Central Asian provinces after his victory over Lydia but before the war with Babylonia. ), who probably drew on Babylonian sources for his description of Cyrus' campaigns. , Drangiana, Margiana, Chorasmia, Sogdiana, Bactria, Aria, Gedrosia, the Saka tribes, Sattagydia, Arachosia and Gandhära, did Cyrus turn his attention to Babylonia. There are unfortunately no reliable written sources for the history of Middle Asia prior to the Achaemenids. Even Astyages of Media may have had to contend to some extent with the Middle Asian tribes.